Reduced-cost microwave modeling using constrained domains and dimensionality reduction
Development of modern microwave devices largely exploits full-wave electromagnetic (EM) simulations. Yet, simulation-driven design may be problematic due to the incurred CPU expenses. Addressing the high-cost issues stimulated the development of surrogate modeling methods. Among them, data-driven techniques seem to be the most widespread owing to their flexibility and accessibility. Nonetheless, applicability of approximation-based modeling for real-world microwave components is hindered by a high nonlinearity of the system characteristics, dimensionality issues, and broad ranges of operating parameters the model should cover to make it practically useful. Performance-driven modeling frameworks deliver a partial mitigation of these problems through appropriate spatial orientation of the metamodel domain, which only encapsulates high-quality designs and not the entire space. Unfortunately, the initial model setup cost is high, as defining the domain requires database designs that need to be a priori acquired. This paper introduces a novel approach, where the database designs are replaced by random observables, and dimensionality of the domain is reduced using spectral analysis thereof. The major contributions of the work include implementation of the explicit dimensionality reduction of the confined surrogate model domain and introducing this concept into a complete cost-efficient framework for modeling of microwave components. Comprehensive benchmarking demonstrates excellent performance of the introduced framework, both in terms of predictive power of the rendered surrogates, their scalability properties, as well as low computational overhead associated with the model setup.