How the Bronfenbrenner Bio-ecological System Theory Explains the Development of Students’ Sense of Belonging to School?
The central concept of this review underscores the fact that the development of a feeling of belonging at school occurs because of different interactions between developing students and the school’s ecological environment over time. This review argues that Bronfenbrenner’s Bio-ecological Systems Theory can best explain the development of school belonging by highlighting the role of PPCT (Process, Person, Context, and Time). The process includes the interactions (proximal and distal) that occur between students and their school’s ecological systems. The person considers the active role of students in influencing their development. The context encompasses the school’s ecological systems. The time includes events and the chronological age of students. The review highlights the most important proximal practices and interactions that occur in school microsystems and play a significant role in enhancing students’ sense of belonging. Empirical, longitudinal research that focuses on the interactions of all the components of the PPCT model is recommended.
El Zaatari, Wafaa