Reduced-cost two-level surrogate antenna modeling using domain confinement and response features
Electromagnetic (EM) simulation tools have become indispensable in the design of contemporary antennas. Still, the major setback of EM-driven design is the associated computational overhead. This is because a single full-wave simulation may take from dozens of seconds up to several hours, thus, the cost of solving design tasks that involve multiple EM analyses may turn unmanageable. This is where faster system representations (surrogates) come into play. Replacing expensive EM-based evaluations by cheap yet accurate metamodels seems to be an attractive solution. Still, in antenna design, application of surrogate models is hindered by the curse of dimensionality. A practical workaround has been offered by the recently reported reference-design-free constrained modeling techniques that restrict the metamodel domain to the parameter space region encompassing high-quality designs. Therein, the domain is established using only a handful of EM-simulations. This paper proposes a novel modeling technique, which incorporates the response feature technology into the constrained modeling framework. Our methodology allows for rendering accurate surrogates using exceptionally small training data sets, at the expense of reducing the generality of the modeling procedure to antennas that exhibit consistent shape of input characteristics. The proposed technique can be employed in other fields that employ costly simulation models (e.g., mechanical or aerospace engineering).