Spasmolytic and antimicrobial activities of crude extract of bongardia chrysogonum l. Tubers
Background and Objective: Although Bongardia chrysogonum L. (family Berberidaceae) has been used in many countries in traditional medicine to treat gastrointestinal tract disorders, scientific evidence for this treatment is lacking. The present study was carried out to assess the antimicrobial activity and to evaluate the antispasmodic potential of B. chrysogonum tuber extract. Materials and Methods: Extracts were also evaluated for antimicrobial potential against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using the agar well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were determined by using the micro dilution method. To evaluate the antispasmodic activity of B. chrysogonum extract on contractions induced by the spasmogens acetylcholine, BaCl2 and KCl, contractions of rat duodenum were recorded using an isolated tissue bath chamber with an isotonic transducer and oscillographic device. Results were compared by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett’s post test. Results: Preliminary phytochemical screening of the tuber extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins and carbohydrates, including monosaccharides. No antimicrobial activity was observed against gram-positive or gram-negative bacteria; however, ethanolic B. chrysogonum tuber extract attenuated the basal contractile activity of rat duodenum smooth muscle and decreased contractions induced by acetylcholine, KCl and BaCl2, suggesting an antimuscarinic effect and/or interference of calcium influx. Alkaloids and saponins present in the extract may account for this antispasmodic effect, suggesting multiple mechanisms that can be explored in future studies. Conclusion: Taken together, results demonstrate that B. chrysogonum tuber extract possesses antispasmodic activity but not antimicrobial activity and supports its traditional use to alleviate gastrointestinal spasms.
Shatarat, Amjad T.
Al-Essa, Mohamed K.
Chazot, Paul Louis